Conservation Planning and Citizen Science

Baldwin, R., A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier.  2006.  Conservation planning for amphibian species with complex habitat requirements: a case study using movements and habitat selection of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica).  Journal of Herpetology 40:443-454.

Baldwin, R., and P.G. deMaynadier.  2009.  Assessing threats to pool-breeding amphibian habitat in an urbanizing landscape.  Biological Conservation. 142:1628-1638.

Beaudry, F., P.G. deMaynadier, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2008.  Identifying road mortality threat at multiple spatial scales for semi-aquatic turtles.  Biological Conservation 141: 2550-2563.

Calhoun, A.J.K. and P. deMaynadier.  2003.  Forestry habitat management guidelines for vernal pool wildlife in Maine.  Wildlife Conservation Society Technical Paper #6.  Rye, New York.

Calhoun, A.J.K., N. Miller, and M. W. Klemens. 2005.  Conservation strategies for pool-breeding amphibians in human-dominated landscapes.  Wetlands Ecology and Management 13:291-304.

Calhoun, A.J.K. and P. Reilly.  2008.  Conserving vernal pool habitat through community based conservation.  In:  Calhoun, A.J.K. and P.G. deMaynadier (eds).  Science and conservation of vernal pools in northeastern North America.  CRC Press.

Freeman, R.C., K.P. Bell, A.J.K. Calhoun, and C.S. Loftin.  2012.  Incorporating economic models into vernal pool conservation planning: Using local land use regulations to enhance state regulations.  Wetlands 32:509-520.

Gibbs, J.P.  2000.  Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation.  Conservation Biology 14:314-317.

Hart, D.D. and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2010.  Rethinking the role of ecological research in the sustainable management of freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater Biology 55:258-269.

Jansujwica, J., A. Calhoun, J. Leahy, and R. Lilieholm. 2013.  Using mixed methods to develop a frame-based private landowner typology.  Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal. 26:8, 945-961, DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2012.729294.

McGreavy, B., T. Webler, and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2012.  Local decision maker attitudes to vernal pool conservation in Maine.  Journal of Environmental Management 95:1-8.

The Maine Municipal Guide to Mapping and Conserving Vernal PoolsMorgan, D.E., and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2011.  The Maine Municipal Guide to Mapping and Conserving Vernal Pools.  University of Maine, Sustainability Solutions Initiative, Orono, ME.

Oscarson, D., and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2007.  Developing vernal pool conservation plans at the local level using citizen scientists.  Wetlands 27:80-95.

Patrick, D., M.L. Hunter, and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2006.  Effects of experimental forestry treatments on a Maine Amphibian Community.  Forest Ecology and Management 234:323-332.

Veysey, J.S., K.J. Babbitt, and A. Cooper.  2009.  An experimental assessment of buffer width: Implications for salamander migratory behavior.   Biological Conservation. 142:2227-2239.

Bauer, D.M., P.W.C. Paton, and S.K. Swallow.  2010.  Are wetland regulations cost effective for species protection? A case study of amphibian metapopulations.  Ecological Society of America. 20.3:798-815.

Capps, K.A., R. Rancatti, N. Tomczyk, T.B. Parr, A.J.K. Calhoun, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2014.  Biogeochemical Hotspots in Forested Landscapes: The Role of Vernal Pools in Denitrification and Organic Matter Processing.  Ecosystems 17.8:1455-1468.

Densmore, C.L., and D.E. Green.  2007.  Diseases of amphibians.  Ilar Journal. 48.3:235-254.

Freeman, R.C., K.P. Bell, A.J.K. Calhoun, and C.S. Loftin.  2012.  Incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning.  Wetlands. 32.3:509-520.

Gabrielsen, C.G., A.I. Kovach, K.J. Babbitt, and W.H. McDowell.  2013.  Limited effects of suburbanization on the genetic structure of an abundant vernal pool-breeding amphibian.  Conservation Genetics. 14.5:1083-1097.

Pittman, S. E., and R. D. Semlitsch.  2013.  Habitat type and distance to edge affect movement behavior of juvenile pond‐breeding salamanders.  Journal of Zoology. 291.2:154-162.

Quesnelle, P.E., K.E. Lindsay, and L. Fahrig.  2015.  Relative effects of landscape-scale wetland amount and landscape matrix quality on wetland vertebrates: a meta-analysis.  Ecological Society of America. 25.3:812–825

Pittman, S. E., and R. D. Semlitsch. 2013.  Habitat type and distance to edge affect movement behavior of juvenile pond‐breeding salamanders.  Journal of Zoology. 291.2:154-162.

Shearin, A.F. 2012.  Influence of landscape arrangement and wetland condition on breeding dynamics of Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander) in Maine, USA.  Diss. The University of Maine.

Green, A.W., M.B. Hooten, E.H. Campbell Grant, and L.L. Bailey. 2013.  Evaluating breeding and metamorph occupancy and vernal pool management effects for wood frogs using a hierarchical model.  Journal of Applied Ecology. 50.5:1116-1123.

Jansujwicz, J.S., and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2010.  Protecting natural resources on private lands: the role of collaboration in land-use planning.  Landscape-scale conservation planning.  Springer Netherlands. 205-233.

Jansujwicz, J.S., A.J.K. Calhoun, and Robert J. Lilieholm.  2013.  The Maine vernal pool mapping and assessment program: engaging municipal officials and private landowners in community-based citizen science.  Environmental Management. 52.6:1369-1385.

Jansujwicz, J.S., A.J.K. Calhoun, J.E. Leahy, and R.J. Lilieholm.  2013.  Using mixed methods to develop a frame-based private landowner typology.  Society & Natural Resources. 26.8:945-961.

Mushet, D.M., A.J.K. Calhoun, L.C. Alexander, M.J. Cohen, E.S. DeKeyser, L. Fowler, C.R. Lane, M.W. Lang, M.C. Rains, and S.C. Walls.  2015.  Geographically isolated wetlands: rethinking a misnomer.  Wetlands. 35.3:423-431.

Levesque, V., A.J.K. Calhoun, and K.P. Bell.  2016.  Turning contention into collaboration:  Engaging power, trust, and learning in collaborative networks.  Society and Natural Resources.

Levesque, V.R., K.P. Bell, and A.J.K. Calhoun2016Planning for sustainability in small municipalities: The influence of interest groups, growth patterns, and institutional characteristics. Journal of Planning Education and Research.

McGreavy, B., A. J. K. Calhoun, J. Jansujwicz and V. Levesque. 2016. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation. Ecology and Society 21 (2):48. URL:

Calhoun A. J. K., Jessica S. Jansujwicz, Kathleen P. Bellb, and Malcolm L. Hunter, Jr. 2014. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

Calhoun, A. J. K., David M. Mushet, Laurie C. Alexander, Edward S. DeKeyser, Laurie Fowler, Charles R. Lane, Megan W. Lang, Mark C. Rains, Stephen C. Richter, Susan C. Walls. The Significant Surface-Water Connectivity of “Geographically Isolated Wetlands”. Wetlands.

Ecology, Hydrology, and Biogeochemistry

Baldwin, R, A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier.  2006.  The significance of hydroperiod and stand maturity for pool-breeding amphibians in forested landscapes.  Canadian Journal of Zoology. 84:1604-1615.

Beaudry, F., P.G. deMaynadier, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2009.  Seasonally dynamic habitat use by spotted and blandings turtles in Maine.   Journal of Herpetology. 43:636-645.

Belasen, A., E. Burkett, A. Injaian, K. Li, D. Allen, and I. Perfecto. 2013. Effect of Sub-Canopy on Habitat Selection in the Blue-spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum unisexual complex)Copeia. 2013(2):254-261.

Faccio, S. D. 2003. Postbreeding emigration and habitat use by Jefferson and spotted salamanders in Vermont. Journal of Herpetology 39:479-489.

Gahl, M.K., and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2010. The role of multiple stressors in ranavirus-caused amphibian mortalities in Acadia National Park wetlands. Canadian Journal of Zoology 88:108-121.

Joyal, L.A., M. McCollough, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2001.  Landscape ecology approaches to wetland species conservation: a case study for two turtle species in southern Maine.  Conservation Biology15:1755-1762.

Paton, P.W. and W.B. Crouch III.  2002.  Using the phenology of pond-breeding amphibians to develop conservation strategies.  Conservation Biology 16:194-204.

Patrick, D.A., A.J.K Calhoun, and M.L. Hunter.  2008.  The importance of understanding spatial population structure when evaluating the effects of silviculture on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).  Biological Conservation 141:807-814.

Popescu, D., M.L. Hunter, D. Patrick, and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2012. Predicting the response of amphibian communities to disturbance across multiple temporal and spatial scales.  Forest Ecology and Management 270:163-174.

Windmiller, B., R.N. Homan, J.V. Regosin, L.A. Willitts, D.L. Wells, and J.M. Reed.  2008.  Breeding amphibian population declines following loss of upland forest habitat around vernal pools in Massachusetts, USA.  In: Mitchell, R.E., J. Brown, and B. Bartholomew (eds).  Urban Herpetology.  Herpetological Conservation.

Calhoun, A.J.K., J.S. Jansujwicz, K.P. Bell, and M.L. Hunter.  2014.  Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111.30:11002-11006.

Cline, B.B., and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2014.  Different open‐canopy vegetation types affect matrix permeability for a dispersing forest amphibian.  Journal of Applied Ecology. 51.2:319-329.

Ryan, K.J., and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2014.  Postbreeding Habitat Use of the Rare, Pure-Diploid Blue-spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale).  Journal of Herpetology. 48.4:556-566.

Saarikivi, J., T. Knopp, A. Granroth, and J. Merilä.  2013.  The role of golf courses in maintaining genetic connectivity between common frog (Rana temporaria) populations in an urban setting.  Conservation Genetics. 14.5:1057-1064.

McLaughlin, D.L., D.A. Kaplan, and M.J. Cohen. 2014. A significant nexus: Geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape hydrology. Water Resources Research. 50.9:7153-7166.

Holgerson, M.A. 2015. Drivers of carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in small, temporary ponds. Biogeochemistry. 1-14.

Golden, H.E., C.R. Lane, D.M. Amatya, K.W. Bandilla, H.R. Kiperwas, C.D. Knightes, and H. Ssegane. 2014. Hydrologic connectivity between geographically isolated wetlands and surface water systems: a review of select modeling methods. Environmental Modelling & Software. 53:190-206.

Cohen, M.J., I.F. Creed, L. Alexander, N.B. Basu, A.J.K. Calhoun, et al.  2016. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:1978-1986.

Rains, M.C., Leibowitz, S.G., Cohen, M. J., Creed, I.F., Golden, H.E., Jawitz, J.W., Kalla, P., Lane, C. R., Lang, M.W., McLaughlin, D.L., 2016. Geographically isolated wetlands are part of the hydrological landscape. Hydrological processes: Hydrol. Process. 30, 153–160.

Vernal Pool Mitigation

Calhoun, A.J.K. and M.W. Klemens.  2002.  Best development practices for pool-breeding amphibians in commercial and residential developments.  Wildlife Conservation Society Technical Paper #5.  Rye, New York.

Calhoun, A.J.K., T. Walls, M. McCollough, and S. Stockwell.  2003.  Developing conservation strategies for vernal pools: a Maine case study.  Wetlands 23:70-81.

Korfel, C.A., W. J. Mitsch, T.E. Hetherington, and J.J. Mack. 2010. Hydrology, Physiochemistry, and Amphibians in Natural and Created Vernal Pool Wetlands. Restoration Ecology 16:843–854.

Vasconcelos, D., and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2004.   Movement patterns of adult and juvenile wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in three restored vernal pools. Journal of Herpetology 38:551-561.

Windmiller, B., and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2008.  Conserving vernal pool wildlife in urbanizing landscapes.  In: Calhoun, AJK and P.G. deMaynadier (eds).  Science and conservation of vernal pools in northeastern North America.  CRC Press.

Calhoun, A.J.K, J. Arrigoni, R.P. Brooks, M.L. Hunter, and S.C. Richter.  2014.  Creating Successful Vernal Pools: A Literature Review and Advice for Practitioners.  Wetlands. 34.5:1027-1038.

About Us

Understanding the vital connections between landowner concerns, municipal planning, conservation activities, and the ecology of vernal pools will be the focus of natural and social scientists from the University of Maine, Clark University, and Bowdoin College as they embark on a multi-year research project concerning Maine’s small natural features—vernal pools.

Recommended Resources

Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North AmericaCalhoun, A.J.K. and P.G. deMaynadier.  2008. Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North America.  CRC Press, Boca Rotan, FL, USA.
Vernal Pools: Natural History and ConservationColburn, E. A. 2004. Vernal Pools: Natural History and Conservation. McDonald & Woodward, Blacksburg, VA.
Maine Amphibians and ReptilesHunter, M.L. Jr., A.J.K Calhoun, M. McCollough, (eds.) 1999.
Maine Amphibians and Reptiles.  University of Maine Press, Orono, ME. 252 pp.
A Field Guide to the Animals of Vernal PoolsKenney, L. P., and Burne, M. R. 2000. A Field Guide to the Animals of Vernal Pools.Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program. Westborough, MA.

Our work is supported by: